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俄罗斯扎赖斯克历史中心改造景观设计 | Basis Architecture Bureau

ab-basis 2021-10-29
原创
  • 项目名称:
    扎赖斯克历史中心改造
  • 项目地点:
    俄罗斯,扎赖斯克
  • 设计公司:

扎赖斯克街景

Zaraysk street view © Basis Architecture Bureau

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扎赖斯克历史中心改造项目现已圆满落成。在2018年度全俄罗斯小规模城市与历史聚居地营造舒适城市环境的项目竞选中,该项目摘得最佳项目奖。据俄罗斯城市个人博主Ilya Varlamov称,由Basis 建筑设计事务所主持的扎赖斯克历史中心改造项目被列入“2019年俄罗斯十大最佳公共空间”榜单。

对该事务所的建筑师来说,重要的不仅是为当地人和游客营建舒适的环境,这座城市的历史特色也值得弘扬,并应展示出其独特的魅力。

The project for the renovation of the historical city centre of Zaraysk has been completed. It won the 2018 All-Russia competition of the best projects in developing a comfortable urban environment in small cities and historical settlements. In 2019, the Zaraysk city centre renovation project by Basis Architecture Bureau was included in the list of "10 best public spaces in Russia 2019", according to independent Russian urban blogger Ilya Varlamov.
It was important for the architects of the bureau not only to create a comfortable environment for locals and tourists but also to emphasize the historical significance of the city, to show its uniqueness.


美丽而梦幻的扎赖斯克历史中心广场

The beautiful and dreamlike historical centre square of Zaraysk © Basis Architecture Bureau

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扎赖斯克是一座古老的小城,仍旧保留着过往舒适的生活节奏与温暖的城市氛围。这座城市与总督Pozharsky,商人Bakhrushins, Yartsevs和Sholokhovs的名字相关联,陀思妥耶夫斯基(Feodor Dostoevsky)也出生在这里。尽管在过去的几年里,城市文化与商业遗产已显著地破败,但扎赖斯克与陀思妥耶夫斯基当年生活过的样子相比,并没有太大变化——这就是它的魅力所在。19世纪的小型木材商人的宅邸是扎赖斯克城的重要历史遗迹,水塔与教堂钟楼依旧是这里的主要地标。集市区也还是在200年前的同一地段,而Krasnoarmeyskaya街则是在凯瑟琳二世时期修建的。根据该项目的规划,历史中心将融入到一处大型步道与游览综合体中,并在历史遗迹周边增添新的景点。

Zaraysk is a small ancient city that still retains the comfort and warmth of bygone eras. The city is associated with the names of the governor Pozharsky, the merchants Bakhrushins, Yartsevs, and Sholokhovs; Feodor Dostoevsky was born here. Despite the fact that over the past years the cultural and merchant heritage has noticeably deteriorated, Zaraysk is not very different from the city that Dostoevsky experienced - and this is its charm. It is dominated by small wooden merchant estates of the XIX century. The water tower and the church bell tower are still the dominant landmarks. The market area is still in the same place as 200 years ago, and Krasnoarmeyskaya Street was built during Catherine II reign. According to the project, the historical centre is combined into a large pedestrian and tourist area with new points of attraction around historical monuments.


城市地标——教堂钟楼

Urban landmark——The church bell  tower © Basis Architecture Bureau

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水塔广场

The water tower square 


砖砌水塔是这座城市的主要景点之一,它让人联想到城堡的主楼。为了突出其显耀的地位,塔的四周设以白色大理石板与混凝土砖的对比式铺装。红白两色的小路呈放射状地从街道汇集至塔楼处。考古学家在施工期间发现的古鹅卵石也被整合到从街道至广场的道路中。环绕小公园的高速路上铺设了红色沥青。

The brick water tower, reminiscent of the donjon tower is one of the main attractions of the city. To emphasize this dominance, a contrasting coating of white marble chips and slabs in the tone of bricks was created around it. Red and white paved paths converge in rays from the roadway to the tower. Historic cobblestone found by archaeologists during the construction works is integrated into the paving where the street enters the square. Red asphalt is laid on the highway circling the small park.


砖砌水塔

The brick water tower © Basis Architecture Bureau

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红白相间的铺装从街道向水塔楼处汇集

Red and white paved paths converge in rays from the roadway to the tower. © Basis Architecture Bureau

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复古木制灯具与随意摆放的橙色与红色座椅为水塔广场营造出亲切而宁静的氛围。游乐场的白色大理石砂上点缀了木制设施。在春天,整个广场都掩映在盛开的白色唐棣花丛中,与外界街道隔离开来。

The intimate and serene atmosphere of this place is reflected in authentic wooden lamps and randomly arranged orange and red chairs. The playground is equipped with wooden objects for playing with white marble sand. In spring the entire square is shrouded in the haze of blooming white shadbush hiding it from the roadway.


随意放置的橙色与红色座椅营造出亲切而宁静的氛围

The randomly arranged orange and red chairs provide intimate and serene atmosphere. © Basis Architecture Bureau


白色大理石砂与红橙座椅相映成趣,兼具活泼与宁静

The white marble sand,together with the chairs with red and orange colors sets each other off,  being quiet and lively. © Basis Architecture Bureau



游戏广场

The playground


设置有秋千的游乐场位于中央商店附近,两边铺有小石子,是场地内的另一重要节点。与明亮的橡胶铺装不同,游乐场地所采用的天然铺装材料观感自然,并适和开展与水相关的活动。此外,采用顶梁背光式照明的秋千、障碍穿越活动区与茶室廊亭,是新设计语言的组成部分,并被广泛地运用在该城的其他区域中。

Another anchor point is a playground with swings near the central store lined with small pebbles. Unlike a bright rubber coating, natural materials look more organic here and are suitable for games with water. A backlit canopy hanging over a swing, a horizontal bar with an obstacle course and a porch of a tea house is part of the new design code and is repeated in several areas of the city.


游乐区的秋千

Swings on the playground © Basis Architecture Bureau

秋千上方的顶梁采用了背光式照明

A backlit canopy hangs over a swing. © Basis Architecture Bureau

障碍穿越活动区

An obstacle course  © Basis Architecture Bureau

障碍穿越活动区与茶室廊亭相衔接

The  obstacle course joins the front porch of tea house. © Basis Architecture Bureau

茶室廊亭

A porch of a tea house © Basis Architecture Bureau



教堂与纪念广场

The church and memorial square


在新的步道路线中,位于18世纪购物拱廊边上的广场和圣三一教堂是其中的重要节点。此处以花岗岩材料作路缘,且广场与街道处于同一水平高度,使得这里可轻松转变为大型活动的场地。以“永恒的火焰”为主题的二战英雄纪念碑经修复后,通过铺装在视觉上得以凸显。富于质感的花岗岩砖勾勒出曾经矗立在此处的小教堂,历史便以这种方式被铭记。类似的改造手法也被运用在昔日的监狱所在地。纪念牌被融入到铺装中,牌上的信息由扎赖斯克克里姆林宫的主管收集提供。

The square near the shopping arcades of the 18th century and the Trinity Church is another important point on the new pedestrian route. Lined with granite and located on the same level with the roadway, it is easily transformed into a venue for mass events. The restored memorial to the heroes of the Second World War with the Eternal Flame is visually highlighted by paving. The history of the place is preserved with textured tiles of chipped granite which outline a chapel that once stood there. A similar approach is applied in another part of the city - where the gaols used to be. Memorial plates are integrated into the paving with information collected by the director of the Zaraysk's Kremlin.


以“永恒的火焰”为主题的二战英雄纪念碑通过铺装凸显出来

The restored memorial to the heroes of the Second World War with the Eternal Flame is visually highlighted by paving. © Basis Architecture Bureau

纪念广场上的铺装细节

Memorial square paving details © Basis Architecture Bureau

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展览与走廊空间沿着购物拱廊布局。为了不遮挡历史建筑的外立面与河谷景观,这里将选种大型枫类灌木丛,而非高大树木,从而为游人提供舒适的荫凉环境。

在这样一个典型的注重感官体验的项目中,景观总是扮演着重要的角色。尽管有些古树位于道路上,建筑师们仍考虑优先保护这些高寿的树木。非线性排列的大树被特别设计的几何型大草坪围合在其中,树下正好适合放置长椅。建筑师还种植了此地已消失的树种——在广场区有椴树和花楸丛。如今,城市中有了花坛、学生的自行车停放区,以及为接送孩子的父母准备的停车场等便民设施。

Exhibition and corridor spaces are organized along the shopping arcades. In order not to obscure the historical facades and the view of the river valley, large shrubs of Ginnal maple giving a cosy shade will be planted here instead of big trees.
In such an authentic, "tactile" project, landscaping always plays an important role. The architects tried to preserve long-lived trees, even where they suddenly found themselves on the paved paths. Big trees planted non-linearly were "caught" in specially designed geometric lawns (creating a place for benches). The architects also restored lost species - a linden alley in the square, rowan bushes. The city now has flower beds, bicycle parking for schoolchildren and parking for parents bringing children to school.


刻意将树木随意散落地布置在广场中

The scattered trees are planted specifically. © Basis Architecture Bureau

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照明设计的计算数据表明,使用高过木屋的6米高的路灯,以棋盘式布局在路两侧,能同时照亮步行道与街道。合成实木板的路灯是专为扎赖斯克城市设计的,这些木材将随时间优雅地老去,只会为城市特色继续增光添彩。

Lighting calculations showed that it was possible to illuminate the pedestrian part and the road together not only with 6-meter lights exceeding the size of wooden houses but also with double-sided lamps arranged in a checkerboard pattern. Compact wooden lanterns have been specially designed for Zaraysk that will gracefully age and only add to the town's identity.


水塔广场照明设计

Lighting project of water tower square © Basis Architecture Bureau

街道照明设计

lighting of avenue  © Basis Architecture Bureau

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Basis 建筑设计事务所的负责人Ivan Okhapkin说:“我们很清楚,要保护俄罗斯市镇的氛围,就不能运用任何现成的方式,即使这些方式在其他地方是可行的,比如使用标准制式的路灯、铺装与长椅。Basis 建筑设计事务所的设计概念围绕扎赖斯克典型的地域特色来构建,从形状、材料、植被与颜色等几个方面展开。我们尝试寻找那些会随时间优雅老去的材料,因此相比于明亮而现代的材料,我们更喜欢使用木材;我们设计了由木材和铜组成的复古灯具;同时也将具有历史特色的鹅卵石应用到铺装之中。我们相信以此打造出了新的城市特色。”

Ivan Okhapkin, head of Basis Architecture Bureau: "It’s clear that in order to preserve the atmosphere of the Russian county town, one can't apply any ready-made solutions, even those that "worked" elsewhere - standard street lanterns, paving, benches. The concept developed by Basis Architecture Bureau is built around shapes, materials, plants and colours typical for Zaraysk. We tried to find materials that would age gracefully: we chose wood instead of something bright and modern; we designed authentic wood and copper lamps; we also used historical cobblestone in the pavement. We believe that’s how a new urban identity is formed."


木制游乐设施

Wooden amusement facilities © Basis Architecture Bureau

木制凉廊

The wooden porch © Basis Architecture Bureau

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长椅与灯具

Bench &Lamps  © Basis Architecture Bureau

长椅

The bench © Basis Architecture Bureau

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石质车挡

Stone vehicle blocks © Basis Architecture Bureau

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同大多数公共项目一样,其预算主要用在重点工程上,如水利设施、天然气基础设施开发、电力供应和废水处理系统等方面。整个历史中心的设计都基于无障碍原则,让行动不便的人群也畅通无阻。

As always in the case of public design, most of the budget is invested in important works on waterworks, gas infrastructure development, power supply, wastewater disposal systems. The entire centre is designed according to the principle of a barrier-free environment suitable for people with limited mobility.


总平面图

The overall plan © Basis Architecture Bureau

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水塔广场轴测图

The axonometric drawing of water tower square © Basis Architecture Bureau

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游戏广场轴测图

The axonometric drawing of playground © Basis Architecture Bureau

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教堂与纪念广场轴测图

The axonometric drawing of the church and memorial square © Basis Architecture Bureau

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林荫路轴测图

The axonometric drawing of the avenue © Basis Architecture Bureau

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项目信息

项目名称:扎赖斯克历史中心改造

项目地点:俄罗斯,扎赖斯克

Basis设计事务所负责人:Иван Охапкин

建筑设计师:Анна Анисимова Анна Гераймович Никита Пермяков Захар Смирнов

总图设计师:Александра Никульникова

交通设计工程师:Кирилл Трактиров

施工设计工程师:Роман Бросков

功能与文化活动规划师:Петр Гордеев

绿化设计工程师:Екатерина Макарова

照明设计工程师:Александр Угольник, Николай Угольник

图片来源:Basis 建筑设计事务所

Project Name:Renovation of the historical centre of Zaraysk

Project Location:Zaraysk,Russia

BASIS Office Director:Иван Охапкин

BASIS Architect:Анна Анисимова Анна Гераймович Никита Пермяков Захар Смирнов

Overall Plan:Александра Никульникова

Traffic Management:Кирилл Трактиров

Construction Management:Роман Бросков

Concepts of Functional Filling and Socio-cultural Programming:Петр Гордеев

Greening Project:Екатерина Макарова

Lighting Project:Александр Угольник, Николай Угольник

Picture Resource:Basis Architecture Bureau


翻译&排版:胡碧乔


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