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巴西圣路易斯历史中心区振兴项目景观设计 | Natureza Urbana

NaturezaUrbana 2021-08-18
原创
  • 项目名称:
    圣路易斯历史中心区振兴项目
  • 项目地点:
    巴西马拉尼昂州圣路易斯
  • 项目规模:
    225850 m²
  • 设计公司:
  • 委托方:
    IDB 国际开发银行,圣路易斯市政府
  • 建成时间:
    2020年
  • 图片来源:
    Meireles Junior

Natureza Urbana建筑事务所日前在巴西马拉尼昂州的历史文化中心——圣路易斯完成了一个大规模的城市振兴项目,致力于打造公共空间,增强现有建筑遗产之间的联系,并为本地小微企业带来更繁荣的市场环境。

The architectural firm Natureza Urbana has just completed an extensive urban revitalization at the historic center of São Luís – Maranhão, focused on qualifying public spaces, improving the interlocution with the existing heritage and boosting the local micro-entrepreneurs market.


▼俯瞰图

Aerial view © Meireles Junior

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此项目是振兴马拉尼昂州首府具有悠久历史的城市中心计划的一部分,由美洲开发银行(IDB)筹资。本事务所领衔三个重要的振兴项目:仁慈广场(Praça da Misericórdia)、绍达德广场(Praça da Saudade),以及Vitorino Freire大道上的公交总站旁的主教喷泉(Fonte do Bispo)。“城市更新是改造城市公共空间,尤其是那些具有历史和文化价值的场地,帮助它们融入不断变化的城市形态中的策略性工具。” Natureza Urbana的城市规划师和合伙人Manoela Machado说到。

The projects were part of a program created to revitalize the historic city center of the state capital of Maranhão, financed by the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB). The firm led 3 important renovations: one at ‘Praça da Misericórdia’ (Mercy Square), other at ‘Praça da Saudade’ (Saudade Square) and another at Fonte do Bispo (Bishop's Fountain), an area around a bus station on Vitorino Freire Avenue. "Requalification projects are a strategic tool to update the use of public spaces - especially those with historical and cultural value –, and insert them in new urban dynamics," says Manoela Machado, urban planner and partner at Natureza Urbana.


▼仁慈广场鸟瞰

Bird-eye’s view of Praça da Misericórdia © Meireles Junior

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▼绍达德广场鸟瞰

Bird-eye’s view of Praça da Saudade © Meireles Junior

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▼主教喷泉鸟瞰

Bird-eye’s view of Bishop's Fountain © Meireles Junior

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设计动机 

Motives


项目最初是为了解决公交总站周边长约2公里的海岸线附近的治安问题,鼓励大众使用这些空间需要城市设计的干预。而其他城市广场也面临同样的问题,因此产生了联合改造的计划。2018年,在IDB的资助下,圣路易斯市政府启动了三项城市干预项目,并委托Natureza Urbana主持设计。

The initial motivation for the revitalization were the security problems around the 2-kilometers shoreline that surrounds the bus terminal, indicating that only an urban intervention would be able to encourage the use of these spaces by the public. The same problem could be also found in other squares of the city, which inspired a joint transformation. In 2018, with financing from the IDB, São Luís city hall started the 3 interventions coordinated by Natureza Urbana.


▼改造范围覆盖2公里的海岸地区

the revitalization around the 2-kilometers shoreline © Natureza Urbana

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▼改造后的广场成为了人们喜爱的休闲场地

After the reviatlization, the squares become citizens‘ beloved spaces © Meireles Junior

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在公共参与的设计过程中,人们表达了对城市的愿景,并在工作坊中分享信息、提出建议。社工小队登记了所有小贩,确保设计方案为他们的报摊、小摊位或是餐车(如自行车搭建的厨房)等预留了空间。

In a participatory process, the population expressed its vision and participated sharing information and suggestions through workshops. Teams of social workers registered the peddlers in order to guarantee that all of them would be considered into the new spaces, either through kiosks, small stalls or adapted vehicles such as bike foods (ideal for street vendors).


▼设计为小商贩预留了店铺空间

All the peddlers are considered into the new space © Meireles Junior

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公交总站与主教喷泉  

Fonte do Bispo and bus terminal


改造后,公交总站周边地区拥有了滑板公园、游乐场、运动和环境教育空间,以及互动喷泉和售货亭等设施,使超过150人受益。

Just around the Bus Terminal, more than 150 people benefited from the project, which brought the construction of a skateboard park, a playground and an area for sports and environmental education, as well as an interactive water fountain and many kiosks for the merchants.


▼改造之前的公交总站 

Bus Terminal before intervention © Meireles Junior

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▼改造之后的公交车站 

Bus Terminal after intervention © Meireles Junior

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▼滑板公园 

Skateboard park © Meireles Junior

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▼游乐空间 

Playground © Meireles Junior

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▼可供攀爬的斜坡 

Climbing ramps © Meireles Junior

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▼运动空间 

Area for sports © Meireles Junior

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▼改造后的公交站台 

Bus terminal after renovation © Meireles Junior

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▼供等车的乘客休息的座椅

Seats for passengers © Meireles Junior

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▼主教喷泉平面图及剖面图 

The plan and section of Bishop's Fountain ©Natureza Urbana

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绍达德广场

Praça da Saudade


绍达德广场从前被小贩无序占用,环境恶劣,人们很少在此聚集或休憩。该场地位于一片公墓旁,因此得名(葡萄牙语中绍达德Saudades意为想念爱慕之人),也因而有许多临时的卖花货摊。

At ‘Praça da Saudade’, previously irregularly occupied by peddlers and deeply degraded, the use of the area as a meeting and leisure spot was limited. The place is located next to a cemetery, hence its name (Saudades means ‘to miss someone you love’), and was occupied by many improvised flower stalls.


▼改造前后的绍达德广场俯瞰图

Aerial view of Saudade Square before and after intervention © Meireles Junior

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▼改造前后的商贩区

Flower stalls before and after intervention © Meireles Junior

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Natureza Urbana提出了一个倡导团结、组织以及更好的利用现有空间的方案,帮助小吃摊、报亭以及出租车停靠站等具有地方特色的设施融入环境。场地原为一块缺少绿化的巨大水泥广场,经过改造后,广场拥有了铺满草坪的斜坡,绿化面积显著增加,此外还新建了石质的看台座椅和花店区,为前往公墓的人们提供了更多的建筑设施。屋顶结构由多层薄木板粘连在一起构成,木材来自再造林地。屋顶以及其余空间都有一种流动的美感,让人想起伦索伊斯•马拉年塞斯国家公园(Lençóis Maranhenses)里的沙丘。

Natureza Urbana proposed a project that provides unity, organization and a better use of the existing free area, in addition to enabling the integration of local equipment such as food stalls, magazines stalls and taxi stops. Previously characterized by a large cemented area and a lack of green, the square gained grass mounds to expand the vegetation, masonry bleachers and new space for florists, who now serve the cemetery visitors with more structure. The roofs are made of glued laminated wood from reforestation. Both the roofing elements and the rest of the space have a fluid aesthetic, in reference to the Lençóis Maranhenses’ sand dunes.


▼多用途的斜坡草坪 

Grass mounds with multiple functions © Meireles Junior   

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▼石质看台坐椅

Masonry bleachers © Meireles Junior

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▼有顶棚遮阴的店铺区

Stalls with a roof © Meireles Junior

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▼充满流动性的屋顶结构和场地设计元素

Roofing elements and the rest of the space have a fluid aesthetic © Meireles Junior

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▼绍达德广场俯视图 

Aerial view of Saudade Square © Meireles Junior

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▼绍达德广场平面图 

Plan of Saudade Square ©Natureza Urbana

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▼绍达德广场剖面图 

Sections of Saudade Square ©Natureza Urbana

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仁慈广场

Praça da Misericórdia


仁慈广场是城中最古老的广场,由于位于仁慈医院前,导致广场人流量很大,面临着和其他两个广场不同的挑战。虽然场地依旧保留着部分殖民时期广场的典型设计元素,如从广场中央的雕塑像四周的草地辐射开来的步道等,但遗产保护迫在眉睫。

At ‘Praça da Misericórdia’, one of the oldests squares in the city placed in front of the Santa Casa da Misericórdia Hospital (where there is a great flow of people), other challenges were faced. Although the place retained some classic design traces of the colonial squares – such as the central sculpture from which trails radiate over the lawns –, the place demanded urgent conservation initiatives.


▼改造前后的仁慈广场

Mercy Square before and after intervention © Meireles Junior

040-MIS-Before-01_副本.jpg


为了让空间更加开放,对步行者更友好,设计拆除了原有的围墙。Natureza Urbana提出了更换城市家具,改善景观并升级铺装等改造方案,让鹅卵石铺装的小路重焕新生,同时提高了道路的可达性。此外,设计团队还提出了供本地工人使用的标准化商业空间方案。

The wall surrounding the perimeter was removed in order to make the area more accessible and pleasant for pedestrians. It was up to Natureza Urbana to propose the replacement of urban furniture, adapt the landscaping and update the paving, both revitalizing the cobblestone flooring and creating paths focused on accessibility. The standardization of commercial spaces where the local workers operate was also proposed.


▼改造前后俯瞰图

Aerial view before and after © Meireles Junior

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▼设计提升了道路的可达性

Improved accessibility © Meireles Junior

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▼简洁的石质长凳作为种植区的边界

Masonary benches as borders of planting areas © Meireles Junior

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▼商业区域

Commercial spaces © Meireles Junior

14.jpg▼仁慈广场平面图 

Plan of Mercy Square ©Natureza Urbana

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结语 

Conclusion


这项城市振兴工程非常成功,甚至推动了广场周围建筑的更新改造。在项目委托人的倡议下,这些建筑得到了修缮,外立面色彩与广场相呼应,这证明了城市设计上的干预能有效激发社会变革 。

The revitalization was so successful that it motivated the requalification of the buildings facing the square. As an initiative of the owners, they received improvements and paintings aligned with the new local phase, proving the thesis that urban interventions are a powerful tool for social transformation.


▼项目推动了广场周边的建筑改造

Project motivated the requalification of the buildings facing the square ©Natureza Urbana

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项目信息 

项目名称:圣路易斯历史中心区振兴项目

设计公司:Natureza Urbana

项目地址:巴西马拉尼昂州圣路易斯

委托方:IDB 国际开发银行,圣路易斯市政府

项目面积:225850 m²

建成时间:2020年

摄影:Meireles Junior

Project name: Urban Projects in São Luís

Design: Natureza Urbana

Location: Maranhão,  São Luís, Brazil

Clients: Banco de Desenvolvimento Internacional BID, Prefeitura de São Luís

Area: 225850 m²

Completion time: 2020

Photography: Meireles Junior



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