欲望、社会需求与景观未来——《景观设计学》2020年第6期作 者：言语（YAN Yu），张晓萌（ZHANG Xiaomeng），彭智凯（PENG Zhikai）等类 别：景观出 版 社：高等教育出版社有限公司出版时间：2020年12月
Landscape nourishes not only human’s body and mind, but also human desires, from survival and physiological needs, to the sense of belonging and identity, and the self-actualization, all of which arise from landscapes.
From the first day of standing on the ground with both feet—instead of arboreal inhabitation—human beings, driven by the desire for survival, hunted herbivores around the edge of grasslands and forests while protecting themselves from beasts hidden in the tall grass; they also learned to make best use of natural environment, knowing the uses and dangers of terrains and landforms, the rocks in the wilderness, and plants and wild animals, and to use body senses to find companions and safe places for inhabitation and reproduction. Evolutionary Anthropology and Evolutionary Aesthetics hold that human’s inherent desires for survival and reproduction shape our perception and aesthetics of landscapes: The landscape structures and elements related to survival are the stimuli to sublimity, while those related to reproduction provoke the desire for beauty. This is of course an extremely simplified interpretation on the relationship between landscapes and human emotions, where the landscape is meaningful: a lone tree on the barren, as “an island in the sea,” means the hope of life, and the flat ground on cliffs and the caves in the mountains symbolize the birth and reproduction of human beings.
Human desires also influence the formation of cultural landscapes on the earth. The historical landscape is the imprints of human desires on the land, and the existing landscape traces the cultivation of human desires nowadays. The continuous pastures, farmlands, and orchards all manifest human desires; industrial areas and urban sprawls all mirror the human’s desire for material abundance; the Great Wall lying on the borders of ancient China and the Grand Canal contacting with the Yellow River and the Yangtze River illustrate human desire to control the nature; the Versailles Park and the Summer Palace display the desire for ruling of the French and Chinese royal families; the Triumphal Arches in ancient Rome, the Victory Avenue of the Third Reich (Siegesallee des III Reiches), or the enormous squares or the large-scale landscape avenues often found in today’s Chinese cities all accent the overweening desires of urban decision-makers.
Desire is endless. Therefore, human’s unrestrained creation or alteration might cause irreversible damages on natural landscapes. The history of human evolution and development tells us that inherently human beings do not constrain their desires; rather, human beings’ greed keeps increasing in the process of satisfying desires. The wealthy and the powerful expand their palaces and gardens unlimitedly for new desires. Technological advance and large-scale industrial production not only satisfy capitalists’ growing desires for wealth, but also accelerate the exploitation on natural resources, resulting in continuous sprawls of farmlands, factories, and cities, and the reckless use of chemical pesticides and fertilizers. All of these have caused the earth, the only homeland of mankind, to face severe crises such as climate change, frequent floods, rising sea levels, etc., and the landscape is undergoing dramatic changes—human beings may bury ourselves in the abyss of desire. As what Mahatma Gandhi once warned, “There is enough on earth for everybody’s need, but not for everyone’s greed.”
Fortunately, human desires can harmonize with nature. When the primary physiological and safety needs are met, humans can wisely utilize the services of natural landscapes—instead of immoderately consuming natural resources—to satisfy our higher-level needs. For the identity and the sense of belonging, humans build towering monuments and grand temples by extensively mining stones, which exhaust manpower and materials. Alternatively and wisely, this desire can be realized by simply planting a Fengshui forest, or erecting a wooden pillar at the gateway of the village where we live, just like what the early Han ancestors did when they fled from the war-torn Central Plains to the hilly and forested southern region. The seed they sowed, or the sapling they planted have linked them with the new land and the nature, and further become symbols of homeland to their descendants. For the self-actualization, one can move away hills by removing or flattening rocks and cliffs, or regard them as prototypes for art creation by depicting beautiful natural sceneries, galloping wild horses, and dancing lovers on with mineral pigments—this is art. The art of imagination and reproduction of landscapes, including the landscape design and landscape creation, can satisfy human desires in the greatest sense. In Chinese culture, such creations include the fairy tales of the misty Mount Penglai in the sea and the majestic Kunlun wonderland in the mountain, both expressing the fear for death and the desire for immortality; the Land of Peach Blossoms described by Tao Yuanming, representing an ideal society of harmony, tranquility, and peace; and the painting Travelers among Mountains and Streams, as well as the Master of the Nets Garden exactly illustrating the expectation of free life in nature away from the mortal world.
In this sense, human’s high-level desires can help achieve the greatest satisfaction without destroying nature. This is precisely the ecosystem services in modern Ecology Sciences, or the landscape services in Landscape Architecture.
 Dutton, D. (2003). Aesthetics and Evolutionary Psychology. In J. Levinson (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook for Aesthetics. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
 Burke, E. (1757). A philosophical enquiry into the origin of our ideas of the sublime and beautiful. Retrieved from https://www.bartleby.com/24/2/
 Sachs, J. D. (2011, March 2). The Earth provides enough to meet everyone’s needs. The National. Retrieved from https://www.thenationalnews.com/opinion/comment/the-earth-provides-enough-to-meet-everyone-s-needs-1.426562