深圳西丽生态公园景观设计 | 创以景 CAN.X
Xili Eco Park is located in Xili, Nanshan District of Shenzhen within the core development area, on the west side of Vanke Yuncheng and Zhongxing Talent Apartment. After 3 years of design and construction, the park was completed and opened to the public in April 2020, providing a comfortable mountainous park for Xili and the public in Shenzhen.
Bird's eye view of the Xili Eco Park
公园地块曾经远离城市发展中心， 周边主要是工业园区。随着城市建设的规划开发， 周边的地块逐渐转化为新兴的商业办公及住宅区。创以景设计团队从方案设计至施工完毕，负责设计质量的把控。
The parkland was far away from the developed urban center, and the surrounding areas are mainly industrial parks. With urbanization from the development planning, the surrounding land parcels were gradually transforming into new commercial and residential areas. CAN.X design ltd. as the lead landscape design team, responsible for the control of the design quality from schematic design to the completion of construction.
The parkland was undulating, with steep slopes, low walkability and limited accessibility. The flat areas were very limited for any potential park activities. The lack of planting diversity and unmanaged vegetation were also problematic. Due to the impact of surrounding rapid urban development, the parkland cannot provide appropriate habitats for both plants and animals. It becomes a hidden ecological issue affecting the safety of the city.
To allow better understanding of the site opportunities, the design team took the initiative to investigate the site and its environmental conditions. From the existing derelict landscape and loose patches of trees, the design team recognized an effective ecological restoration and implementation is needed to reaffirm the functional positioning of the city park as the green lungs; improve the ecological conditions of the site; and strengthen the connectivity of the eco-green in the area. At the same time, the opportunity is to take the mountainy landscape with 80-meter level differences to create a multi-levels/ multi-layers leisure landscape park experience. As the parkland is located in the future development area of the city core and is surrounded by high-quality densely developed residential and office communities, the park design shall meet the existing and future needs of the citizens in living, learning and social aspects.
The landscape design team used “the integration of urban form and natural landscape processes” to create a breakthrough in the design. Landscape design has taken the full advantage of the site’s natural landform and character, to maximize the planting communities, animal habitats and the diversity in ecological quality. At the same time, the sponge city strategy is also implemented to establish the park and recreate the natural system. On the other hand, a diversity of spaces and connections are promulgated and created from different aspects in the city and create a strategy of landscape system with rhythm and layers. In organizing the park programs, different exhibitions and interactive activities are used to promote the ecological protection and preservation to the public, e.g. the garbage collection and classification exhibition, to allow public engagement and understanding of the ecological protection in a sustainable concept and practical implementation in a natural and pleasant environment.
Night View of park
The 20 hectares of urban ecological green space, within the Shenzhen inland, has a distinct ecological value to the surrounding social communities. The landscape design team insist in applying the principles from nature and believe that the landscape planning and design shall respect the sense of place, natural landforms and ecosystem, to ensure there is a balance of resources in urban development and in ecological protection. There shall be minimal negative impact from construction to the landform, planting communities, to create comfortable, fresh and vantage points for the people to enjoy.
Aerial view of the project
Respect Nature / Healing the Forest
For mountain projects, the complexity in the undulating terrains and the existing growth of plants on site are different from the preconditions of any land development in other cities. The design team has investigated the characters of the site and the conditions of the existing vegetation, with the given existing assessment to arrive at the following ideas:
•There are existing cultivation plots in the park. The design scheme retained the plots and their function, integrate them into the park and create an urban farmland valley in the local context.
•Re-establish the healthy and aged farming of litchi forest into a main thematic place in the park.
•At the early design stage, the design team has evaluated the site with planting and characters worthy of protection and integrated into a master plan base on subsequent survey and record. At the commencement of construction, the design team had reviewed the site conditions to ensure the original vegetation or the landscape characters are properly preserved.
This great landscape does not only come from the full set of design document. It growth and sustain with the engagement of the people in time, locally integrated as a natural vernacular landscape.
Reflection on the Practical Implementation of a Mountain Project
There are many uncertainties in the planning and design for this mountainy project site, due to the existing environmental conditions, the many physical excavations, the dispersed planting communities and the exposed rocks outcrops and faces. These many uncertainties from the preliminary design to the completion of the project posed a challenge to the design team on chasing the schedule. Among them, including the design team's understanding and review of the site; the feasibility of implementing the design scheme; the practicality of meeting the site conditions; the contractor's execution in accordance to the design scheme, etc., will affect the final delivery of the project. It is always difficult for landscape project to be completed in strict adherent to the scheme, and it was not easier for this mountainy landscape project. In this project, the landscape design team has put into much extra time on the amalgamation of the different places within the site and the improvement on the design, to ensure the project has included the multi-levels concerns. The following illustrate the core of such work:
•The general layout of the as-built master plan is very close to that of the preliminary design layout. The designer has given a precise understanding and efficient control of the site.
•The design process in the project involves investigation, review and implementation of bridges, municipal roads, landscape, architecture, interior, exhibition, lighting, signs, etc. The collaboration of a multi-disciplinary team and thorough communication system (including constant review and comments on construction drawings), with landscape design as the lead, allow a full control on the overall effect and character.
•Control of overall material quality and project cost.
•The numerous site investigation, appraisal/ review and resolution of issues by the design team.
A Fresh Natural Scenery
It is an exquisite crown for the mountain, direct the upward movement of pedestrians and elevate toward top of the mountain. It protects the natural vegetation and landform at the top and reduces the human interference and damage to the soil surface. It provides a grand and open walking experience. This Sky Walk shall provide a romantic and leisure place for walking through the clouds in a high speed and high density urban city of Shenzhen.
Base on the conditions of the site and the sceneries, the design team has positioned the pavilions at strategic locations and at different orientations to allow resting places and direct vistas for the people to indulge into the beautiful skyline of the city. The glass lookout platform provides transparent views of the natural stone outcrops on the slope underneath adding a thrilling experience to the garden adventure.
A Friendly Social Place
At the middle of and at the mid-level of the park, the lawn area is the only flat area that can be used as the central activity zone for the park. The glass cantilevered lookout platform sitting near the peak and above the Sunshine Lawn. Planting on the rockery slope composed to reveal the character of a mountain park. The facilities architecture is designed in layers to integrate with the natural landform, and the green roofs form a special feature to the park scenery. However, the layering of the building roofs allow natural light to the interior of the building, reduce the use of electricity and maintain a balance in ecological protection.
山地类项目，最大的挑战就是现场地形可能与图纸中的数据不一致，设计需要保持一定的开放性和可调整的灵活度。在现场施工中，设计团队发现了场地中一组现状树值得保留，因此， 移动建筑与原有的滨水休闲座， 将场地中的“原住民”得以妥善的保留，并为空间提供舒适的荫凉。
For any mountain projects, the biggest challenge is that the site terrain may not be consistent with the data in the drawings. Therefore, the design needs to maintain a certain degree of flexibility and allow adjustment. During construction, the design team discovered a group of existing trees on site that are valuable to be preserved. So the movable building and the originally designed leisure seating area at the water feature have to be relocated to allow keeping the "indigenous people" on site and provide shade for comfort of the place.
GROW WITH NATURE
This is an all-ages activity ground molded from the landforms. The basic amusement facilities and rest areas provide good places for people to enjoy and relax. The safety matting area is not paved in a conventional manner with bright and contrasting color, but in earthy tones with the land. The play equipment is also considered with natural character. The children’s play area with mountainous character will bring refreshment and create a contrast to the community playground.
Use topography to create an activity park
Forward Looking Environmental Ideas
EMBRACE THE ENVIRONMENT
The waste collection and classification museum allows visitors to recognize their responsibilities for environmental protection.
The waste collection and classification museum
Sustainable Development Strategies
南山西丽的荔枝是当地有名的特产， 而项目场地中是一片长势良好的荔枝林。 在设计的初期，设计团队就明确了整体荔枝林的保留。围绕荔枝林的主题，满足公园散步的功能，林下采用透水材质铺装，让人可以在盛夏中依然感受密林下的习习凉风。同时，在荔枝林外，利用场地的高差，设置了观景休闲平台，可以在高处观赏荔枝林自然的景致。
Lychee is a famous local fruit in Nanshan Xili and the project site has a well-established lychee grove. The preservation of the existing lychee grove was clearly identified by the design team at the early design stage which provides places for strolling & resting under the lychee canopies. The pathways with permeable material pass through the grove allows people to enjoy the cool breeze under the dense canopies in midsummer. The leisure lookout platforms located on a high ground next to the grove provide a viewing area overlooking the natural lychee grove.
Viewing leisure platform
Taking advantage of the undulation of the site, a natural storm water system strategy is used to direct rainwater in the park through the farming plots and others natural planting area. Part of the areas have established sunken green to allow seasonal function as rain garden. People can stroll along side of the rain garden to have close views or stand on the lookout platforms to enjoy the distant views.
Rain garden and sunken green space
Integration of Architectural Design and Landform
Architecture Growth from the Forest
The buildings in the park are integrated with the surrounding nature to the greatest extent. In the design, the building blocks are “integrated” into the natural landform.
Architecture and nature are embedded
CHILL IN THE PARK
The park frontage is designed to break through the conventional approach of an urban plaza with large paving area. With a formal arrangement of planting areas & natural elements to reorganized into a rhythmic setting by using a combination of large and small sizes of hard paving to integrate with the individual planting areas. This further generate smooth and grandiose paving with detail for the main path and smaller rustic and mixed color feature borders to integrate the urban interface with the mountainous nature.
The rich layering of the main entry plaza integrates with a comfortable pedestrian ramp & wide staircase increase the accessibility and invite the park users to fully enjoy the environment of this eco-mountain park.
The main entrance plaza merges with the natural slope
代建单位：华润 (深圳) 有限公司
Project Commission: Nanshan Urban Management Bureau
Project area: About 20 hectares
Project Management & Construction: China Resources (Shenzhen) Limited
Main Consultant: Shenzhen Landscape Co., Ltd
Landscape & Architectural Design Consultant: CAN.X design ltd
Design Period: 2017-2018
Construction Period: 2018-2020
Photography: Arch & QW