福建上坪古村复兴计划 | 三文建筑
Proclaimed as a Traditional Village of China, Shangping Village lies in Xiyuan Township, Sanming City, Fujian Province of southeast China. The village was founded in the Tang Dynasty and has developed rich cultural traditions. Today, as an exceptional representative of Hakka villages and Hakka clan culture, it still remains a clan-based lineage community, with most dwellers surnamed Yang, featuring a well-developed layout designed on the basis of the Chinese Fengshui geomancy philosophy. Most existing buildings in the village are folk houses built during the Ming and Qing dynasties, several of which are proclaimed as historic monuments under county-level protection. “Schooling while farming” is a deep-rooted tradition that has long been practiced in the village. In modern times, however, decline of traditional industries have led to emigration of village population and threatened transmission of traditional skills. At this unprecedented tipping point, Shangping Village is faced with a critical choice: either continuing to decline due to lack of vitality and public life, or embracing an opportunity to seek a new model of revival.
Aerial View ©金伟琦
The restoration projects aimed at reinvigorating the historic village, improving villagers’ livelihood and creating new industries; reshaping the village community, transmitting traditional building skills, enhancing clan ties and community identity, and building links between heritage protection and contemporary needs, local transmission and external involvement; and thus achieving adaptive transformation in both form and function, developing a new model of revitalizing historic villages and setting an example that can be drawn upon by the rest of the country.
View of Shuikou area ©金伟琦
The three pilot sites are Shuikou Area (known as the entrance of the village), Yang’s School Area and Tai Fu Tai Mansion Area . Restored buildings in Shuikou Area include Gallery Pavilion that offers a space for recreational activities and sacrificial rites, Art Installation in Tobacco-curing House, and Clouds Café that was remodeled from a utility shed. Jingya Granary Library that is open to local villagers and Guanyue Granary Bookstore that offer reading service to tourists, within Yang’s School Area, were both remodeled from cowsheds and utility rooms. Restored buildings in Tai Fu Tai Mansion Area include Quanli Pigsty Bistro remodeled from a pigsty, Lotus Chamber, a teahouse remodeled from utility rooms, Quanwai Orchard Conference Room, and two wooden canopies that was originally used to store agricultural equipment and has been re-designed as a major open experience space.
Panorama view of Shuikou area in Shangping Village ©金伟琦
View of Yang’s School Area © 三文建筑
Aerial View of Tai Fu Tai Mansion Area
In terms of architectural design, contemporary, artistic and interesting features were highlighted on the basis of the site-specific and indigenous nature of village buildings and settings. In addition, space design was focused on integrating original agricultural and handicraft elements into after-restoration business operation and developing creative products and marketing strategies. It is an integrated process of architectural design, involving industrial planning, space designing, tour package development, and market promotion.
Designers created multiple cultural products and souvenirs by taking advantage of history, legend and local materials. A good example is the design of notebooks and bookmarks, with couplets from Mr. Zhu Xi. The Logo of Shang Ping Village were designed with cultural, architectural and agricultural components. Other cultural projects, such as T-shirts and umbrellas, also derived from the logo. In Tai Fu Tai Mansion, besides the package design for Shang Ping lotus nuts and dried bamboo shoots, products with the theme of ‘pig’ for ‘Pigsty Bistro’ are also well designed. Pig represents affluence in China and also means lucky in western culture. In Chinese character, ‘family’ is composed with a ‘roof’ and a ‘pig’, which means praying underneath the roof makes a family complete. Using pig as the prototype of cultural products like scarves, coasters and post cards is to maintain the original taste of the rural buildings, thus making it an interesting project. All these products inherit great culture of Shang Ping Village as well as increase local income from tourism industry.
Shangping cultural and creative products: Shang Ping lotus nuts and coffee cups of Clouds Cafe ©金伟琦
Shangping cultural and creative products: Hand-painted maps and seals ©金伟琦
After restoration, these areas have re-established themselves as public spaces and community centers, effectively encouraging village residents to engage in cultural and public events.
Gallery pavilion ©金伟琦
Interior view of Guang-Yue Granary Bookstore
Wooden canopies applied in a bamboo shoot squeezing space and a pavilion
Over the Rainbow: Shangping Village Regeneration - Shuikou Area
The site condition: vital location, but in urgent need of improvement
The Shuikou area is the village entrance, as well as for worship activities to ancestors and divinities. The existing buildings include the Shezumiao Shrine, the Yang’s Ancestral Temple, a gallery pavilion, a tobacco-curing house and a debris shed. To integrate with the buidlings, an ancient bridge, a magnolia tree, and lotus ponds constitute the landscape elements.
Gallery pavilion ©金伟琦
Gallery pavilion in springtime © 日月蓝草
The gallery pavilion
It needs to tear down the original pavilion with rubbery stone and to build a new one with more transparent corridor. It not only maintains traditional feng shui pattern of blocking sight and water, but also provides the good view for people who are sitting inside the corridor appreciating the surrounding scene and passers-by. Designers audaciously amend the external wall and create a semi- permeability effect by use of grilling on the basis of the raising-of-truss structure and open a landscape "window" in the semi-high position which is very modernistic at first glance but we can carefully see the regulations of Chinese traditional architecture of Tang and Song dynasties. The designers wish to establish an inheritance through the respect of the original faith and enable the locals to accept the new pavilion that the statues of worship for local people are well preserved and re-placed back to the original position of the new building. The lighting design further strengthens the symbolic spirit function of the village: at night, the returning villagers can see the lights at a very distant place that leads the way home.
Gallery pavilion ©金伟琦
Gallery pavilion in the mist ©金伟琦
Fish Lamps inside the gallery pavilion ©金伟琦
Clouds Cafe is a small house built on the original debris shed while keeping the form of local pergola, from which people can look down the pond in front. Shaped as a box with simple interior, the function of the building has been designed as a cafe for both locals and tourists to have a rest. For the facade facing to the village, the designers have adopt the wooden windows, one of whose sides are painted in color while another in plain, with axis to make a flexible while charming internal and external space. The designers hope that this new service facility will bring a dramatic "conflict" to the ancient village.
Facade transformation of Clouds Cafe ©金伟琦
Clouds Café - transformable wooden windows ©金伟琦
Clouds Café (interiors) ©金伟琦
The tobacco-curing house
As a relic of traditional agriculture facility, the tobacco-curing house has important tourism value for urban residents to learn about traditional tobacco-making craftsmanship. The design team did not want to make the transformation as a simple reproduction of the original techniques but an artistic intervention was introduced: The tobacco-curing house has been molded into an ode to farming civilization and sun through a lighting installation. The sunlight would be intensified into colored lights from the skylight window. Designers hope it becomes a ritual place for people to reconsider the relationship between man and nature by artistic installation.
Rainbow art installation inside the tobacco-curing house ©金伟琦
Yang’s School Rural Library and Bookstore
Yang’s School Area is located at the intersection of the two streams in Shang Ping Village where two main trails dispatch from the entrance. That’s the reason of being important geographically. According to historical legend, Mr. Zhu Xi, a national historian and educationalist, has lectured in Yang’s School and created great poems as well as calligraphy here. The design of this part is to transform historical site into a tourist spot and unveil the great history of Shang Ping Village.
The design includes a few deserted agricultural buildings, such as utility rooms, cowsheds and barns. The design team hopes to transform the original buildings into a bookstore which provides space for tourists to learn about the history and culture of the village. Meanwhile, it also provides locals, especially children, with a place to get knowledge from the outside world. It is a great opportunity to indicate a well-known Chinese tradition called "Cultivation and reading is to bequeath to the family".
View of Yang’s School Area
Night view of Yang’s School Area
‘Guang Yue Granary Bookstore’ and ‘Jing Ya Granary Bookstore’
In the early phase of site analysis, designers found that utility room and cowshed are very different in terms of spatial identity. The utility room is relatively tall with accommodated interiors, while the cowsheds are lower and darker. Several cowsheds are separated by rubble walls and second floors are used for storing forage originally. By using the characteristics of the original space, the design team defined the new building as a combination of ‘Live and Calm’.
The new buildings embody interrelated qualities of dynamism (dong) and quietness (jing).
‘Live’ refers to the sales space in Boostore transformed by utility room. It is relatively active to be here when exchanging books and sales activities happen periodically. Also, cultural products designed by the team are sold at this corner. Reading Bar is regarded as a cultural window connecting the village to the world outside. Visitors can get to know more about the village while local residents see the outside from a physical window (a full height glass door facing to the village) and psychological one. It is called ‘Guang-Yue Granary Bookstore’.
The scene of the stream in the seating area of Guang-Yue Granary Bookstore
Guang-Yue Granary Bookstore (night view)
In the opposite of the building, the original surface across the stream is a solid wall with a high window on it. However, the landscape is so nice to be seen from the building that designer added a platform inside, on which people enjoy the view. This design principle maintains the existing relationship between interior and exterior. Thus, when people stay inside, stream is kept invisible for enjoying sound only. If visitors still wants to see the stream, one step on the platform makes it a great difference. A full-height glass window is embedded in the other side of the building to generate a new relationship with its’ neighbor, the village, to provide a great solution for better natural lights.
A platform was added within the existing structure in Guang-Yue Granary Bookstore
Interior view of Guang-Yue Granary Bookstore
Bar area of Guang-Yue Granary Bookstore
‘Calm’ refer to reading and meditation, named ‘Jing-Ya’. It is transformed from former cowsheds. The identity of this space, connected but separated from top to bottom, is special to be kept. The lower level enclosed by rubble used to be dark and narrow living space for cow, while narrow wood-made upper level was used for forage. Wood structure seats on rubble part. Two levels are separated spatially (entrance is separated) but connected logically (cow on the bottom eats forage) in function.
“Jing-Ya” bookstore was transformed from former cowsheds
Maintaining this spatial character but elevating the upper ‘wood house’, it turns out to be a new home for readers since first floor is higher and gets more natural light. Nothing could disturb this quiet and enclosed space except the penetrated sunlight. The solid rubble wall on the first floor were maintained, contracting with cosy bean bag. Soft versus hard, warm versus cold and new versus old are co-existing in a dramatic space. The second floor was re-defined accordingly: three rooms are integrated into one with an atrium up to half size floor area. Glass panels are installed over the atrium to create more transparency. The forage room is still designed to be lower in height and must be entered from the outside by a ladder. This kind of ‘uncomfortableness’ is intentionally emphasized, creating a sense of slow and primitivity. The design is trying to allow people to get a monkish experience, to experience the space with cautiousness. Thus, all readers come to here would retrospect the relationship between human, space and nature without any disturbance of modern life.
Inside Jing-Ya granary bookstore, the wood house was elevated to bring natural light in
Reading area on the upper floor of “Jing-Ya” granary bookstore
Glass panels are installed over the atrium to create more transparency
Shangping Village Regeneration - Tai Fu Tai Mansion Area
The last design area of the Shang Ping Village Regeneration is somewhere hidden inside the village. It locates on the east stream. According to the legend, a giant house named ‘Tai Fu Tai Mansion’ at here was built by a famous government officer after retirement. The gate tower is well preserved but the main building was destroyed by a fire many years ago, which is quite regretful. The original cultural elements and landscape like pond, ancient wells, bamboo shoots squeeze, gateway and the ancient stage ruins are utilized by designers for the regeneration. Some unused structures such as pigsty and shed are obvious on site, which is remained to be major landscape elements. Actually, these existing structures become great resources for new types of business as well as village revival.
The stone walls of the original pigsty were preserved
‘Pigsty Bistro’ and ‘Orchard Conference Room’
From a deserted pigsty to a bar: ‘Pigsty Bistro’ is a major new building in this area. The exterior of the building is not aggressive by keeping previous materials: rubbles and wooden roof. The floor plan is divided into four part for raising pigs. Each square is infilled with new bar, coffee table and Kang table (a heatable brick bed). The design would like to create a cosy and dramatic atmosphere by placing colorful floral pillows, Kang table, pigsty feeding，rebar decorated floor and color variable LED lights, etc. Some of these ‘Exotic’ stuffs makes it more interesting for visiting, especially for youngsters.
Pigsty Bistro (exterior view)
The color-variable LED lights were installed in the floor of ‘Pigsty Bistro’
Coffee table area of Pigsty Bistro
Brick bed area of ‘Pigsty Bistro’
Bar area of ‘Pigsty Bistro’
A small meeting room next to ‘Pigsty Bistro’ has tilted roof, with a full-height glass window facing to Tai Fu Tai Mansion and its stage. It’s called ‘Orchard Conference’. Together with the Pigsty Bistro, Orchard Conference provide services for all users.
Together with the Pigsty Bistro, Orchard Conference provides services for all users
Orchard Conference Room (interiors)
Lotus Chamber is a teahouse transformed from an old utility room. It represents ‘Being Incorruptness’ for having the same pronunciation with integrity in Chinese. This building is the most obvious one by the pond next to Tai Fu Tai Mansion. The design kept old rubble wall and only fixed non-recyclable wood structure on the upper level, then making it a teahouse by water. Users can walk through a glass door, stand on the platform and enjoy spaces over the pond with lotus, referring back to the name ‘Lotus Chamber’.
Lotus Chamber (exterior view)
Lotus Chamber -- a teahouse transformed from an old utility room
Night view of Orchard Conference Room
Pavilion and Bamboo Shoots Squeeze
Between Tai Fu Tai Mansion, Bistro and conference room, structures for bamboo shoot s squeeze (for making dried bamboo shoot) were kept and renovated to become a great installation. One of it could still be used for producing dried bamboo shoots. When Qingming Festival comes each year, visitors could also experience making bamboo squeeze by themselves, which becomes a great interaction on site. Another one is renovated to be a pavilion. Whenever there are show playing underneath, audience could see through windows nearby.
Wooden canopies applied in a bamboo shoot squeezing space and a pavilion